High Middle Ages
Part 1 (1009-1183)
On February 14, 1009 the name of Lithuania was first mentioned in connection with the murder of a missionary, St. Bruno, at the border of Lithuania and Ruthenia. See sources.
In 1038 Meclaw, the Duke of Masovia, went into battle with Polish Duke Casimir the Restorer. His allies were the Yatvingians and the Lithuanians. Yaroslav, the Grand duke of Kiev, offered his aid to Casimir the Restorer, and attacked Yatvingia.
In 1040 and 1044 Yaroslav attacked Lithuania in his campaign against Meclaw and his allies. Lithuania became a tributary to Ruthenia and was paying tribute to the dukes of Polotsk.
In 1047 Meclaw of Masovia was completely defeated by Yaroslav.
In 1060 Hakon became King Svein's of Denmark commander of the coast defence against the Vikings, - the Vindlanders, the Curonians, and others from the East countries, - who infested the Danish dominions.
In 1075 Adam of Bremen described the Curonians (a tribe in the present-day western Lithuania) as "the most cruel tribe". He also noted that they were becoming widely renowned for their prophets, who were able to foretell the future.
In 1080 Canute IV, the King of Denmark, attacked and defeated the Curonians, the Sembians and the Estonians.
In 1128 Mstislav, the Grand Duke of Kiev, organised the invasion to Polotsk, banished two dukes of Polotsk, Borisoviches, to Byzantium and took Polotsk under his direct rule.
In 1131 Mstislav of Kiev invaded Lithuania, devastated it and took numerous prisoners. When the army was retreating, the Lithuanians beat the Kiev division, which had lagged behind.
In 1140 the banished Dukes of Polotsk Borisoviches returned from their exile.
In 1151-1167 the Borisoviches were fighting with the Gleboviches for power in Polotsk. The Lithuanians also became involved in this fight.
In 1159 Polotsk Duke Rogvolod Borisovich forced Rostislav Glebovich to make peace, but Volodar Glebovich "did not kiss the cross because he marched through forests under Lithuanian leadership".
On June 15, 1161 the Danes captured Palanga castle in Curonia (the first mentioning of Palanga).
In 1162 Rogvolod Borisivich had surrounded Volodar Glebovich in the castle of Gorodets (at the border of Lithuania; now Gorodok in Molodechno region, Belarus). With Lithuanian assistance Volodar defeated Rogvolod.
In 1170 the Estonians and the Curonians attacked the Oland island (in Sweden).
In 1180 the Lithuanians for the last time participated in the march of the army of the Polotsk dukes.